Düşünce ve Araştırma Kur'an ve Hadis

Kur'an Dilinin Analizi

Kur'an Dilinin Analizi 634 Sayfa
Yayınevi : el-Mustafa Yazar : Dr. Muhammed Bâkır Saidirûşen

Dinî metinlerin dili ve bu metinlerin çeşitli ifadelerini anlamanın niteliği üzerinde düşünülmesi, din araştırmacılarının ve dindarların en eski meşguliyetlerinden kabul edilebilir. Ama modern zamanlarda, özellikle de Rönesans'tan ve Yahudi-Hıristiyan dinî metinlerine eleştirel bakış kapısının açılmasından sonra bu mevzunun önemi yüzlerce kat arttı.

Dinî bilgilerde anlamdan yoksunlaştırma, saf işlevselcilik, sembolleştirme, dinin diline yönelik eleştirel gerçekçilik, yazarın maksadını ve metnin içeriğini göz ardı etme, anlamı okuyucunun zihnine bağımlı kılma gibi şeyler bu şartların ve düşünce evresinin armağanıdır.

Bu durumda en temel soru şudur, dinin diline böyle bir yaklaşım ve hermenötik acaba biz Müslümanların önündeki zorunlu tek seçenek midir ve sonuç itibariyle bu yöntem Kur'an'a da dayatılmalı mıdır? Yoksa böyle bir mecburiyet söz konusu değil midir?

Kur'an Dilinin Analizi

19 Önsöz
27                                          Dil Nedir?
30                                          Delaletin Oluşması ve Simgelerin İlişki Düzeni
32                                          Konuşma Dilindeki Çeşitli Düzeyler
32                                                                                A) Fonetik Düzen Düzeyi
32                                                                                B) Kural Düzeni Düzeyi
33                                                                                C) Anlam Düzeni Düzeyi
35                                          Lafız ve Anlamın İlişkisi
37                                          Tasavvurcu ve Tasdikçi Medluller ve Anlamlar
38                                          Lafzın Anlama Delaletinin Kriteri
39                                          Dilin Kullanımları
40                                                              Hakikatlerin Tavsifi
40                                                              Tezahürlerin Sebep-Sonuçla İzahı
40                                                              Konuşma Fiili
40                                                              Duygusal-Hissi
41                                          Bir Metnin Dilinin Çok Alanlı Olma İmkânı
42                                          Dil ve Gerçeklik
42                                          Dil ve Tefekkür
43                                          Dil, Dünyagörüşü ve Değerler Düzeni
44                                          Çeşitli Diller ve Sınırlandırmanın Ölçütü
46                                                                                             Haber Dili ve Hüküm Dili
46                                                                                             Hakiki Dil ve Mecazi Dil
49                                                                                             Kinaye Dili
49                                                                                             Sembolik Dil
50                                                                                             Temsil Dili
52                                                                                             Mitoloji Dili
53                                          Dilbilim ve Alanı
56                                          Dil Felsefesi
59                                          Normal Dilden Edebiyat Diline
65                                                             Dinin Dili
65                                                             Din ve Dil
66                                                             Çeşitli Alanlarda Dil ve Dinin İlişkisi
66                                                                                                        Yahudi Düşüncesi Bölgesi
68                                                                                                        Yahudi Philon
69                                                                                                        Mesih (a) Dininin Alanı
70                                                                                                        Origen
72                                                                                                        İskenderiyeli Clement
72                                                                                                        Augustin
73                                                                                                        İbn Meymun İsrailî
75                                                                                                        Aquinas
76                                                                                                        Bonaventure
79                                                                                      Modern Dönem
80                                                                                      Ortaçağ Düşüncesinin Temelleri
80                                                                                                                         Dünyevî Yaklaşım
82                                                                                      Modern Çağın Ortaya Çıktığı Bazı Alanlar
82                                                                                      Modern Düşüncenin Bileşenleri ve Donanımı
82                                                                                                                                     1. Deneysel Bilgi Yönteminin Popülerleşmesi
105                                                                                                                                     2. Geçmişe Eleştirel Bakış
115                                                                                                                                     3. Felsefi Hermenötik ve Tüm Anlayışlara Yorum-Dil Boyutu Kazandırmak
141                                                                      1. Pozitivizm ve Anlamsızlığın Dinin Diliyle İlgisi
143                                                                                                                              Wittgenstein’ın İlk Dönemi
144                                                                                                                              Ayer ve Doğrulanabilirliğin Ölçütü
145                                                                                                                              Mantıksal Pozitivizmin Karanlık Çıkmazı
146                                                                                                                              John Wisdom
147                                                                                                                              Anthony Flew
147                                                                                                                              Crombie
149                                                                                                                              Hare
149                                                                                                                              Basil Mitchell
150                                                                      2. Linguistik Analiz ve Dinî Dilin İşlevselciliği
152                                                                                                                           Wittgenstein ve Dil Oyunları
154                                                                                                                           Wittgenstein’ın Görüşünün Özellikleri ve İcapları
158                                                                                                                           Wittgenstein’ın Görüşüne Eleştiri
160                                                                                                                           Philips
161                                                                                                                           Van Buren
161                                                                                                                           Braithwaite
163                                                                                                                           Stace
165                                                                                                                           İşlevselcilikle Aynı Yöndeki Psikolojik-Sosyolojik Teoriler
165                                                                                                                           İşlevselciliğin Eleştirisi
166                                                                      3.Dinî Dilde Sembolizm (İrrealist Episteme)
168                                                                                                                   Paul Tillich
169                                                                                                                   Randall
171                                                                                                                   Ernst Cassirer
171                                                                                                                   Hıristiyan Fırkaların Değişik Yaklaşımları
172                                                                                                                   Karl Barth’ın Neo-Ortodoksi Görüşü
173                                                                                                                   Bultmann’ın Egzistansiyalizmi
178                                                                      4. Gerçekçiliğin Epistemik Görüşü
178                                                                                                              Alston ve Aquinos’nın Görüşünü İhya
179                                                                                                              Montgomery Watt’ın Betimleyici Dili
180                                                                                                              Ian Barbour ve Dine Kapsamlı Bakış
182                                                                                                              John Hick ve Uhrevi Doğrulanabilirlik
187                                                                                 Batı Dünyasının Bazı Dinî-Kültürel Alanları
188                                                                                                                                     1. Asli Vahiyden Yoksunluk
189                                                                                                                                     2. Karışık Metinlerden Çıkan Dinî Kavramların Yetersizliği
196                                                                                                                                     3. Aklı İptal
197                                                                                                                                     4. Bilimin Sınırlandırılması
197                                                                                                                                     5. Kutsal Metinlerin İç Çelişkileri
198                                                                                 Bu Köklerin Sonuçları
198                                                                                 Modern Zamanın Tepkileri
199                                                                                                          1. Bilim ve Dinin Ayrışması ve Çatışması
199                                                                                                          2. Deneyselciliğin Yaygınlaşması
199                                                                                                          3. Metafizik Çıkarsamalar
199                                                                                                          4. Dinî Reform Hareketi
200                                                                                                          5. Çeşitli Felsefeler
200                                                                                                          6. Ürünler ve Sonuçlar
203                                                                                 Dinin Dilinde Sarsılan Temeller ve Tahrip Olan İddialar
203                                                                                                                                          1. Dinin Dilindeki Anlamsızlık Görüşü
204                                                                                                                                          2. Dilde İşlevselcilik
204                                                                                                                                          3. Sembolleştirme ve Mitolojik Varsayma
206                                                                                                                                          4. Eleştirel Gerçekçilik
208                                                                                 İslam Dünyasının Dinî-Fikrî Alanları
208                                                                                                                            1. Kur’an-ı Kerim: Allah’ın İnsanlık İçindeki Asli Vahyi
213                                                                                                                            2. Kur’an’ın Muhtevası
230                                                                                 Kur’an’ın Fikrî, Kültürel Etkileri
230                                                                                                                           1. Dinî Düşüncenin Donukluğu Değil, Gelişimi
230                                                                                                                           2. Bilimsel Durgunluk Değil, Gelişme
231                                                                                                                           3. Akılcılık İftiharı ve İslam Felsefesi
232                                                                                 Olumsuz Tepkiler İçin Zeminin Bulunmaması
232                                                                                                                             1.Bilim ve Dinin Karşı Karşıya Gelmek Yerine Birbirini Tamamlayıcı Olması ve Gerektirmesi
233                                                                                                                             2. Cahilliklerin Boşluğunu Kapatan Değil, Kayyum Allah
235                                                                                                                             3. Dinin, Beşeri Onarıma Mani Kemali
237                                                                                                                             4. Akıl Temelli Felsefe ve Varlığa Kuşatıcı Bakış
241                                                                     Kur’an’ın Dili, İç Zorunluluklar
242                                                                     İslam Kültüründe Din ve Dilin Bağı
243                                                                                                             1. Kıraat İlminden Kur’an İlimlerine
245                                                                                                             2. İslam Edebiyat İlimleri ve Linguistik
246                                                                                                             3. Müslümanların Tefsir Metinleri ve Linguistik
248                                                                                                             4. İslam Kelamı ve Felsefesi ve Linguistik
256                                                                                                             5. İrfan ve Tasavvuf
263                                                                                                             6. Fıkıh Usülü
267                                                                 Kur’an Dilinin Anlamı
269                                                                 Kavramlar Sahasında Kur’an’ın Dili
271                                                                 Kelime Vazetmenin Niteliği
277                                                                 Kur’an’ın Kültürü ve Arapça Giysisi
279                                                                 Kur’an’ın Kavramlarına Birkaç Örnek
279                                                                                                            Kur’an
280                                                                                                            Sure
280                                                                                                            Vahiy
280                                                                                                            Levh-i Mahfuz
281                                                                                                            Kaza ve Kader
282                                                                                                            Fıkıh ve Tefakkuh
282                                                                                                            Mü’min ve İman
283                                                                                                            Kalbin Hastalığı
283                                                                                                            Nifak, Münafık
284                                                                                                            Allah Yolunda Cihad
285                                                                                                            Huşu
285                                                                                                            Sırat-ı Müstakim
286                                                                                                            Sübhan ve Tesbih
286                                                                                                            Dünya, Ahiret
287                                                                                                            Berzah
287                                                                                                            Saat
288                                                                                                            Kıyamet
288                                                                                                            Cehennem
289                                                                                                            Hulud
290                                                                 Kur’an’a Özgü Örf
291                                                                 Kur’an’ın Dünya görüşü
293                                                                 Kur’an’a Özgü Örfün Lugat Manasıyla Bağlantısı
301                                                                                                     Hükümler ve Cümleler Düzeyinde Kur’an’ın Dili
303                                                                                                                                                           1. Zâhircilik ve Kur’an’ın Tek Boyutlu Dili
317                                                                                                                                                           2. Bâtınilerin Sembolcülüğü
322                                                                                                                                                           3. Mutasavvıfların Tevilciliği
322                                                                                                                                                           3. Mutasavvıfların Tevilciliği
326                                                                                                                                                           4. Yeni Naturalistler ve Kur’an’ın Tevili
349                                                                                         1. Her Sözde Birinci İlke Hakikattir
352                                                                                         2. Hakikatin İşaretleri
353                                                                                         3. Karinenin Yokluğu
355                                                                                         4. Kur’an’da Mecazın Alanı
358                                                                                         5. Felsefi Hakikatin Edebi Hakikatten Ayırt Edilmesi
359                                                                                                                                              Bir: Edebi Hakikat ve Mecazın Felsefi Hakikat ve Mecazdan Farkı
359                                                                                                                                              İki: Yalan Mecaz ve İstiare ya da İddia Edilen Hakikat mi?
361                                                                                         6. Temsilden Sembole
366                                                                                         7. Nazil Olmuş Hakikatler
371                                                                                         8. İlahiyatın Dili Mecburen Sembolik Dil midir?
372                                                                                                                                          A) İslam Hikmeti ve İlahiyatın Bilgi Sunması
373                                                                                                                                          B) Kur’an Vahyi Bakış Açısına Göre İlahiyat
381                                                                                                                                          C) İlahiyatın Dilini Sembolik Kabul Etmeyi Reddetmenin Akli ve Nakli Temelleri
386                                                                                                                                          D) Allah’ın Fillerinde Zamanlılık İlişkisi
387                                                                                                                                          E) Allah’ın Fiilinde Göreceli İfadeler
390                                                                                                                                          F) Kur’an’da Bâtın ve Zâhir
395                                                                             1. Kur’an’ın Gerçekçiliği
396                                                                             2. Kur’an Cümlelerinin Türleri
397                                                                             3. Kur’an’ın Vasıflarından Bir Parça
400                                                                             4. “Gereken” ve “Varolan”In Bağı
401                                                                             5. Bazı Ayetlerde Mesaj ve Gerçeğin İçiçe Özelliğini Aramak
403                                                                                                                                                Evrenin Genişliğinde Tevhidin Alametleri
404                                                                                                                                                Allah’ı Tavsif
404                                                                                                                                                Fiillerde Tevhid
404                                                                                                                                                İlahi Âdetler
405                                                                                                                                                Kozmoloji
405                                                                                                                                                İnsanın Ortaya Çıkışı ve Gelişiminin Aşamaları
405                                                                                                                                                Bel’am Bin Baura hikâyesi
406                                                                                                                                                Ebu Leheb’in Kaderi
407                                                                                                                                                Neshedilmiş Gizli Konuşma ve Sadaka
407                                                                                                                                                Riba Kıssası
409                                                                                                                                                Saatin Olayları ve Şartları
409                                                                                                                                                Amellerin Bedenlenmesi ve Hazır Bulunması
410                                                                                                                                                Organların Şahitlik Etmesi
410                                                                                                                                                Yeniden Diriliş Sahnesi ve İyiler İle Kötülerin Kaderi
411                                                                                                                                                Sonuç
413                                                                             6. Çağdaşlık ve Kur’an’dan Gerçekliği Kaldırma
414                                                                                                                                      Eleştiri ve İnceleme
415                                                                             7. Dinin Kavramlarının Zât ve Araz[1] Olarak Ayrılması ve Metnin Suretinden Vazgeçilmesi
417                                                                                                                                                                           Eleştiri ve Değerlendirme
423                                                                             8. Dinin Metnine Fenomenolojik Bakış!
424                                                                                                                    Eleştiri ve İnceleme
426                                                                                                                    Sonuç
429                                                      1. Kur’an Dilini Keşfetme Yöntemi
429                                                      2. Anlatıcıyı Tanıma Yoluyla Dilin Akılla Tanınması
431                                                      3. Metnin Hedefini Öğrenme Yoluyla Dili Tanımak
432                                                      4. Metnin Özellikleri Yoluyla Dili Tanımak
433                                                      5. Muhatapların Sahası Yoluyla Tanımak
435                                                      6. Metnin Mesajındaki İçerik Yoluyla Tanımak
436                                                      7. Deneysel Yöntemle Tanıma
437                                                                                   Eleştiri ve Değerlendirme
438                                                      8. Fenomenolojik Tanıma
439                                                                              Eleştiri ve İnceleme
445                                                            Kur’an’ın Dili Konusunda Yazarın Tercihi
445                                                            Kur’an’ın Linguistik Özellikleri
446                                                                                                  1. Genelin Yararlanması
448                                                                                                  2. Kur’an’ın Metodu, Konuların Karışık Oluşu
449                                                                                                  A’la suresine bir bakış
451                                                                                                  3. Çok Boyutlu Dil
454                                                                                                  4. Basamaklı Dil
457                                                                                                  5. Örfü Aşan Bilgiler
459                                                                                                  6. Hidayetin Yüksek Mertebeleri ve Kur’an’a Özgü Örf
461                                                                                                  7. Kur’an’ın Evrensel Olması ve Ölümsüzlüğü
468                                                                      1. Kur’an’ı Anlamada Fikri Mebna veya Altyapı
470                                                                                                                         Bu Temelin Hermenötik Sonuçları
472                                                                                                                         Kur’an’ın Metinbilim-Linguistik Temelleri
474                                                                                                                         Kur’an’ın Anlam Bakımından Belirlenmesi
475                                                                                                                         Antropolojik Temel ve Sonuçları
480                                                                      2. Kur’an’ı Anlamanın İmkânı
484                                                                      3. Metni Anlamanın Mekanizması
485                                                                                                      İlk Adım: Terminolojinin Semantiği.
486                                                                                                      İkinci Adım: Hüküm İçeren Semantik
488                                                                                                      Üçüncü Adım: Metnin Birbirine Dönük ve Kuşatıcı Semantiği
488                                                                      Karinelerden Yardım Alınması
488                                                                                                     İçbükey Karineler
499                                                                                                     Naklin İçbükey Karineleri
503                                                                                                     Aklî Karine
505                                                                      4. Kur’an’ı Anlamanın Kriteri ve Mantığı
506                                                                                                                       Bir: Dile Hâkim Akılcı Kurallar
509                                                                                                                       İki: Metnin İçsel Ahengi ve Uyumu
512                                                                                                                       Üç: Kanıt Olan Akla Uygunluk ve Koordinasyon
515                                                                                                                       Dört: İnsanın Hayati İhtiyaçlarına Cevaplar
516                                                                                                                       Beş: Metnin Dine İnanan ve Dini Yoketmeyen Yorumuna Dair Tavır Belirlenmesi
521 Kaynakça

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